- Caves, stupas, sculptures continued
- Sculpture making reached its climax during this stage
Now 2 kinds of caves originated – 1. Chaitya 2. Vihar
- Prayer hall for monks
- Karla Chaitya in Mahrashtra
- Residence / rest places of Monk
- Nashik Vihar, Ajanta caves (29 caves – 4 chaitya and 24 vihars)
- Now more enlarged stupas were built
- Gateways or Toranas were now beautifully carved
In this phase – 3 schools developed with regard to sculpture making
||Greek influence. Also called Indo Greek Art
||No outside influence – indigenous
|Type of Sandstone
||Grey Sandstone/Bluish grey sandstone
||Spotted Red Sandstone
||All 3- Hinduism, Jain, Buddhist
||Satvahanas and Icchavakus
||Mathura, Sonkh, Kankalitila (Mostly Jain)
||Krishna Godavari lower valley
|Features of sculptures
- Spiritual Buddha(sad buddha) represents calmness
- Bearded Buddha, Moustache
- Wearing Less ornaments
- Having wavy hair
- Large forehead
- Buddha is seated in position of Yogi
- Having large ears
- Protuberance on his head
- Early – Bluish – grey sandstone
- Later – Use of mud and lime plaster
- Delighted Buddha ie not spiritual
- Head and face shaven
- Dress is tight, energetic body
- Buddha face reflects grace
- seated in Padmasana
- Right hand in Abhaya Mudra raised above shoulders.
- Left hand on thigh
- Buddha surrounded by two Bodhisattavas – 1. Padmapani – Holding lotus 2. Vajrapani – Holding vajra
- Halo around the head of Buddha decorated with geometrical motifs
- Images of Vaishnava (mainly vishnu and his various forms)
- Shiva represented through ling and Mukhaling
- Jain:Sculpture of Mahavira
- Protuberance on head
- Reflects narrative
- Theme based on life of Buddha as Jataka stories
- Stories of previous birth of Buddha both in human as well as animal form
Its being a long time since I wrote last post. So far, I was syncing in Failure of 2013 mains. Marks came out recently and everyone must be knowing their weaknesses. There is clear strategy told by Topper Gaurav Agarwal and that is working on your weaknesses.
One more thing I would like to add in that strategy and that is harness your strength as well. That is, while working over weakness, never lose your strength. Generally it is difficult to get over with habitual or behavioral weaknesses but easy to tackle tactical and strategical weaknesses. At age of us (average will be 27 years) , it is almost impossible to get over with behavioral weaknesses. Therefore, I am trying to identify tactical and strategical weaknesses and will chalk out strategies for getting over with those.
There was huge vulnerability of making strategical mistake in 2013 Mains esp in General studies since nobody knew the format of the papers. If you go through the marksheets of toppers, you will find a clear trend, marks in Essay and optional papers were decision makers. Rank 1 got only ~ 33% in GS papers. So if somebody did badly or average in optionals, you chances are gone for being in final list. It is like CSAT paper 2 of mains. If you score less than 150-160 in CSAT paper 2, you are gone even if you got 90+ in CSAT paper 1, where as someone with 180 in CSAT paper 2 with even 60 in CSAT 1 will be in the list.
One take away I took from 2013 mains is that optional paper matters most and you have to find a way to get minimum 50 to 60% in it to at least stay in the game. Marks in GS are very unpredictable but there is lesser chances of deviation from average marks whereas it is huge in optional papers.
I was disappointed from results but I am optimist and knowing the unpredictability of mains 2013, I do not see scope for living in despair. Hmmm…..Let us give it another try.
The backbone of the rebellions, their mass base and striking power came from the rack-rented peasants, ruined artisans and demobilized soldiers.
- The major cause of the civil rebellions was the rapid changes the British introduced in the economy, administration and land revenue system.
- The revenues were enhanced by increasing taxes.
- Thousands of zamindars and poligars lost control over their land and its revenue either due to the extinction of their rights by the colonial state or by the forced sale of their rights over land because of their inability to meet the exorbitant land revenue demanded
- The economic decline of the peasantry was reflected in twelve major and numerous minor famines from 1770 to 1857.
- The new courts and legal system gave a further fillip to the dispossessors of land and encouraged the rich to oppress the poor.
- The police looted, oppressed and tortured the common people at will.
- The ruin of Indian handicraft industries pauperized millions of artisans
- The scholarly and priestly classes were also active in inciting hatred and rebellion against foreign rule.
- Very foreign character of the British rule
- From 1763 to 1856, there were more than forty major rebellions apart from hundreds of minor ones.
- Sanyasi Rebellion: (1763-1800)
- Chuar uprising (1766-1772 & 1795-1816); Rangpur and Dinajpur (1783); Bishnupur and Birbhum (1799); Orissa zamindars (1804-17) and Sambalpur (1827-40) and many others
WHY THEY FAILED?
- These rebellions were local in their spread and were isolated from each other.
- They were the result of local causes and grievances, and were also localized in their effects.
- Socially, economically and politically, the semi-feudal leaders of these rebellions were backward looking and traditional in outlook.
- The suppression of the civil rebellions was a major reason why the revolt of 1857 did not spread to South India and most of Eastern and Western India.
- Kols of Chhotanagpur (1820-37)
- Birsa Munda (1899-1900)
- The colonial administrators ended their relative isolation and brought them fully within the ambit of colonialism.
- Introduced new system of land revenue and taxation of tribal products
- Influx of Christian missionaries into the tribal areas
- They could no longer practice shifting agriculture
- Oppression and extortion by police officials
- The complete disruption of the old agrarian order of the tribal communities provided the common factor for all the tribal uprisings